World War I Chronology

Chronology of First World War
Pennsylvania Society Gold Medal Exhibit - Stan Klos
Alexandra  and Mariesha Klos with the 
Portuguese Copy of the Treaty of Versailles 
at the 106th Pennsylvania Society Dinner, Waldorf=Astoria, New York.
28th June, 1914
The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of  Austria triggers the war.
23rd July, 1914
Austra-Hungary demands Serbia arrest the leaders of the Black Hand
24th July, 1914
Serbia appeals to Russia for help
28th July, 1914
Austria-Hungary declares war on Serbia
29th August 1914
Russian mobilization ordered.
1st August, 1914
Germany declares war on Russia
2nd August, 1914
Germany demands free passage through Belgium.
3rd August, 1914
Germany declares war on France, Belgium rejects Germany's demand
4th August, 1914
Moltke orders the Schlieffen Plan to proceed; Troops under Gen. Von Kluck cross border. Halted at Liege, Great Britain at war with Germany. Kitchener becomes Secretary of War.
6th August, 1914
Troops under Gen. Von Kluck cross border. Halted at Liege, Great Britain at war with Germany. Kitchener becomes Secretary of War.
7th August, 1914
 French and British troops invade the German protectorate of Togoland,  French forces invade Alsace. Gen. Joffre in supreme command of French army, Montenegro at war with Austria; Lord Kitchener calls for 100,000 men to join British Army
8th August, 1914
Serbia at war with Germany
10th August, 1914
German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa, Britain's Expeditionary Force lands at Ostend, Calais and Dunkirk.
12th August, 1914
Montenegro at war with Germany; Great Britain at war with Austria-Hungary; Big Bertha used against Liege Forts; Austro-Hungarian troops invade Serbia
14th August, 1914
French troops enter Lorraine
17th August, 1914
Belgian capital removed from Brussels to Antwerp
19th August, 1914
Canadian Parliament authorizes raising expeditionary force.
20th August, 1914
Germans occupy Brussels
22nd August, 1914
British Expeditionary Force arrives in France
23rd August, 1914
Japan at war with Germany; Begins attack on Tsingtau; Battle of Mons begins
24th August, 1914
French Army abandons Plan 17; Germans enter France near Lille
25th August, 1914
Viviani becomes premier of France; Austria at war with Japan
26th August, 1914
Battle of Tannenberg begins
28th August, 1914
Austria declares war on Belgium; Battle of Heligoland
30th August, 1914
Amiens occupied by Germans.
31st August, 1914
Russian army of invasion in East Prussia defeated at Tannenberg by Germans under Von Hindenburg
2nd September, 1914
War Propaganda Bureau Writers Conference
3rd September, 1914
Paris placed in state of siege: Government transferred to Bordeaux.
6-10th September, 1914
Battle of the Marne begins; Von Kluck is beaten by Gen. Joffre, and the German army retreats from Paris to the Soissons-Rheims line
11th September, 1914
the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force landed on the island of Neu Pommern, which formed part of German New Guinea. Japan seized Germany's Micronesian colonies and, after the Battle of Tsingtao, the German coaling port of Qingdao in the Chinese Shandong peninsula.
13th September, 1914
French troops attack German Army at the River Aisne
14th September, 1914
Opening of the First Battle of the Aisne; start of trench warfare29th  Antwerp bombardment begins.
25th September, 1914
Battle of Albert
1st October, 1914
Battle of Arras
2nd October, 1914
 British Admiralty announces intention to mine North Sea areas.
5th October, 1914
First German aircraft shot down by Allied plane
9th October, 1914
Antwerp surrenders to Germans. Government removed to Ostend.
13thOctober, 1914
British occupy Ypres
14th October, 1914
Canadian Expeditionary Force of 32,000 men lands at Plymouth.
15th October, 1914
Battle of Ypres; Germans occupy Ostend; Belgian government removed to Havre, France
16th October, 1914
Canadian troops arrive in Britain
29th October, 1914
Turkey joins Central Powers
5th November, 1914
Great Britain and France declare war on Turkey; Cyprus annexed by Great Britain
21st November, 1914
Anglo-Indian invasion of Mesopotamia
8th December, 1914
Off the Falkland Isles, British squadron under command of Rear-Admiral Sturdee, sinks three of the German cruisers which had destroyed the Good Hope and Monmouth on Nov. 1st  The Dresden escapes.
16th  December, 1914
German squadron bombards Hartlepool, Scarborough and Whitby on east coast of England.
21st December, 1914
Farman MF-11 carries out first night bombing raid
25th December, 1914
Christmas Truce on the Western Front
14th January, 1915
South African forces occupy Swakopmund
24th January, 1915
Battle of Dogger Bank
4th February, 1915
Germany announces "war zone" in British waters
10th February, 1915
Prussians defeated by Germans in Battle of Masurian Lakes
18th February, 1915
German submarine 'blockade' of British Isles begins
19th February, 1915
British begin naval action against the Dardenelles
25th February, 1915
Allied fleet destroys outer forts of Dardanelles
1st March, 1915
American citizen dies in sinking of first passenger ship, the British liner, Falaba
2nd March, 1915
Allied troops land at Kum-Kale, on Asiatic side of Dardanelles.
10th March, 1915
British take Neuve Chapelle in Flanders battle
18th March, 1915
Allied naval attack on the Dardanelles
22nd March, 1915
Austrian fortress of Przmysl surrenders to Russians
1st April, 1915
Roland Garros uses deflector plates
22nd April, 1915
Second Battle of Ypres begins the Germans (in violation of the Hague Convention) used chlorine gas for the first time on the Western Front., Poison gas first used by Germans in attack on Canadians at Ypres, Belgium.
25th April, 1915
Allied landings at Gallipoli Peninsula
26th April, 1915
France, Russia, Italy and Britain conclude secret Treaty of London
1st  May, 1915
American steamer Gulflight torpedoed off Scilly Isles by German submarine; 3 lives lost.
2nd May, 1915
British South Africa troops under General Botha capture Otymbingue, German Southwest Africa.
7th May, 1915
Germans capture Libau, Russian Baltic port, Lusitania sunk by German U-boat off Irish coast with loss of 1152 lives; 102 Americans.
9th May, 1915
Artois Offensive
23rd May, 1915
Italy declares war on Austria-Hungary and begins invasion on a 60 mile front.
25th May, 1915
Germany abandons Ypres offensive
25th May, 1915
Asquith forms coalition government
31st May, 1915
German Zeppelins bombard suburbs of London
4-6th June, 1915
German aircraft bomb English towns
15th June, 1915
Allied aircraft bombs Karlsruhe, Baden, in retaliation
22nd  June, 1915
Lemberg recaptured by Austrians
23rd June, 1915
Isonzo Offensive begins
26th June, 1915
Montenegrins enter Scutari, Albania
9th July, 1915
German Southwest African surrenders to British South African troops under Gen. Botha.
5th August, 1915
Warsaw captured by Germans
6th August, 1915
Gallipoli Peninsula campaign enters a second stage with the debarkation of a new force of British troops in Suvla Bay, on the west of the peninsula.
8th August, 1915
Russians defeat German fleet of 9 battleships and 12 cruisers at entrance of Gulf of Riga.
19th August, 1915
Arabic, White Star liner, sunk by submarine off Fastnet; 44 lives lost; 2 Americans.
21st August, 1915
The Washington Post carries story that General Staff is planning to send a force of 1 million soldiers overseas.
24th August, 1915
War College Division denies allegations in Washington Post
25th August, 1915
Brest-Litovsk, Russian fortress, captured by Austro-Germans.
28th August, 1915
Italians reach Cima Cista, north-east of Trent.
30th August, 1915
British submarine attacks Constantinople and damages the Galata Bridge.
31st August, 1915
Lutsk, Russian fortress, captured by Austrians
4th September, 1915
Henry Ford's peace ship, Oskar II, begins voyage to Europe
5th September, 1915
Grand Duke Nikolai sacked as Commander-in-Chief
6th September, 1915
Czar Nicholas of Russia assumes command of Russian armies. Grand Duke Nicholas is transferred to the Caucasus.
11th September, 1915
First tank demonstrated to British military leaders
25th September, 1915
Allies open offensive on Western front and occupy Lens -- Anglo-French Offensive at Artois-Loos
5th October, 1915
Franco-British force lands at Salonika and Greek ministry resigns.
9th October, 1915
Belgrade again occupied by Austro-Germans.
12th October, 1915
Edith Cavell, English nurse, shot by Germans for aiding British prisoners to escape from Belgium.
13th October, 1915
London bombarded by Zeppelins; 55 persons killed; 114 injured.
14th October, 1915
Bulgaria at war with Serbia
15th October, 1915
Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria
17th October, 1915
France at war with Bulgaria
19th October, 1915
 Italy and Russia at war with Bulgaria.
29th October, 1915
Briand becomes premier of France, succeeding Viviani.
5th November, 1915
Nish, Serbian war capital, captured by Bulgarians.
24th November, 1915
Serbian government transferred to Scutari, Albania.
4th December, 1915
Henry Ford, with large party of peace advocates, sails for Europe on chartered steamer Oscar II, with the object of ending the war.
13th December, 1915
Serbia in hands of enemy, Allied forces abandoning last positions and retiring across Greek frontier.
15th December, 1915
Gen. Sir Douglas Haig succeeds Field Marshal Sir John French as Commander-in-Chief of British forces in France.
20th December, 1915
Dardanelles expedition ends; British troops begin withdrawal from positions on Suvla Bay and Gallipoli Peninsula.
22nd December, 1915
Henry Ford leaves his peace party at Christiania and returns to the United States.
11st January, 1915
Greek island of Corfu occupied by French
13th January, 1915
Cettinje, capital of Montenegro, occupied by Austrians.
27th  January, 1915
Wilson launches nationwide whistle-stop campaign to generate support for Preparedness with three speeches in New York
29-31st January, 1915
German Zeppelins bomb Paris and towns in England.
2nd February, 1916
Britain introduces conscription
3rd February, 1916
Wilson delivers final speech of Preparedness campaign in St. Louis
10th February, 1916
British conscription law goes into effect.
19th February, 1916
Kamerun, German colony in Africa, conquered by British forces
21st February, 1916
Beginning of ten month Battle of Verdun. Germans take Haumont.
25th February, 1916
Fort Douaumont falls to Germans in Verdun battle.
9th March, 1916
Germany declares war on Portugal on the latter's refusal to give up seized ships, Pancho Villa's raid on Columbus, New Mexico
15th March, 1916
Austria-Hungary at war with Portugal, Pershing starts pursuit of Villa into Mexico
24th March, 1916
French passenger ship, Sussex, torpedoed with many Americans aboard, sunk by submarine off Dieppe. No Americans lost.
31st March, 1916
Melancourt taken by Germans in Verdun Battle
4th April, 1916
merican naval and military attaches in Paris and London draft plan for mobilizing US shipping to carry an American army to Europe, but their plan is ignored
19th April, 1916
President Wilson publicly warns Germany not to pursue submarine policy.
20th April, 1916
Russian troops landed at Marseilles for service on Frenchfront.
24th April, 1916
Rebellion begins in Ireland on Easter Monday. Republic declared. Patrick Pearse announced as first President.
27th April, 1916
Marshal Lord Kitchener, British Secretary of State for War, asking for American military participation in Europe
29th April, 1916
British force of 9000 men, under Gen. Townshend, besieged in Kut-el-Amara, surrenders to Turks.
30th April, 1916
 Irish rebellion ends with unconditional surrender of Pearse and other leaders, who are tried by court-martial and executed.
4th May, 1916
Germany renounces submarine policy "Sussex Pledge"
8th May, 1916
Cymrio, White Star liner, torpedoed off Irish coast.
14th May, 1916
Italian positions penetrated by Austrians
15th May, 1916
Vimy Ridge gained by British
26th May, 1916
Bulgarians invade Greece and occupy forts on the Struma.
31st May, 1916
Jutland naval battle; British and German fleets engaged; heavy losses on both sides.
3rd June, 1916
National Defense Act authorizes five-year expansion of US Army, but at the same time drastically limits size and authority of US War Department General Staff
4th June, 1916
Russian Brusilov Offensive
5th June, 1916
Lord Kitchener British Secretary of War, loses his life when the cruiser Hampshire, on which he was voyaging to Russia, is sunk off the Orkney Islands, Scotland.
6th June, 1916
Germans capture Fort Vaux in Verdun attack.
21st June, 1916
Allies demand Greek demobilization
27th June, 1916
King Constantine orders demobilization of Greek army.
1st July, 1916
Start of Anglo-French Somme Offensive and British suffer approximately 60,000 casualties on the first day,  British and French attack north and south of the Somme.
14th July, 1916
British penetrate German second line, using cavalry
15th July, 1916
Longueval captured by British
25th July, 1916
Pozieres occupied by British
29th July, 1916
29 US Marines land in Haiti
30th July, 1916
British and French advance between Delville Wood and the Somme, Jersey City, N.J. munitions plant destroyed; German sabotage suspected
3rd August, 1916
French recapture Fleury.
9th August, 1916
Italian Gorizia Offensive
27th August, 1916
Romania declares war on Austria-Hungary
28th August, 1916
Italy at war with Germany, Germany at war with Romania
29th August, 1916
Hindenburg becomes German Chief of Staff
31st August, 1916
Bulgaria at war with Romania. Turkey at war with Romania, Germany suspends submarine assaults
2nd September, 1916
Bulgarian forces invade Romania along the Dobrudja frontier.
13th September, 1916
Italians defeat Austrians on the Carso.
15th September, 1916
British capture Flers, Courcelette, and other Germans positions on Western front, using tanks for the first time
26th September, 1916
Combles and Thiepval captured by British and French.
29th September, 1916
Romanians begin retreat from Transylvania.
15th October, 1916
Germany resumes U-boat attacks under search and destroy rules
24th October, 1916
French recapture Douaumont Fort at Verdun
2nd November, 1916
Fort Vaux evacuated by Germans
7th November, 1916
Wilson wins reelection, which was in doubt until the California returns
13th November, 1916
British advance along the Ancre
18th November, 1916
Somme Offensive ends
21st November, 1916
Britannic, mammoth British hospital ship, sunk by mine in Aegean Sea.
22nd November, 1916
Emperor Franz Josef of Austria-Hungary, dies. Succeeded by Charles I.
23rd November, 1916
German warships bombard English coast.
28th November, 1916
Romanian government is transferred to Jassy, First Germany airplane raid on London.
29th November, 1916
Beatty replaces Jellicoe as C-in-C of Grand Fleet
1st December, 1916
Allied troops enter Athens to insist upon surrender of Greek arms and munitions.
6th December, 1916
Bucharest, capital of Romania, captured by Austro-Germans.
7th December, 1916
David Lloyd George succeeds Asquith as Prime Minister.
12th December, 1916
Germans issue peace note suggesting compromise peace'; Nivelle becomes French Western Front C-in-C
15th December, 1916
French complete recapture of ground taken by Germans in Verdun battle.
18th December, 1916
President Wilson makes peace overtures to belligerents.
26th December, 1916
Germany replies to President's note and suggests a peace conference.
30th December, 1916
French government on behalf of Entente Allies replies to President Wilson's note and refuses to discuss peace till Germany agrees to give restitution, reparation and guarantees.
1st January, 1917
Turkey declares its independence of suzerainty of European powers; Ivernia, Cunard liner, is sunk in Mediterranean.
9th January, 1917
German leaders decide to launch unrestricted U-boat warfare.
19th January, 1917
Battle of Gaza begins; United States declares war on Germany; Start of Arras offensiveStart of Nivelle Offensive;
31st January, 1917
Germany announces resumption of unrestricted U-boat warfare
1st February, 1917
Germany resumes unrestricted U-boat warfare
3rd February, 1917
United States severs diplomatic relations with Germany. Count Von Bernstorff is handed his passports.
7th  February, 1917
California, Anchor liner, is sunk off Irish coast.
13th February, 1917
Africa, White Star liner, sunk by submarine.
17th February, 1917
British troops on the Ancre capture German positions.
24th  February, 1917
Great Britain releases Zimmermann Note to US
25th  February, 1917
Laconia, Cunard liner, sunk off Irish coast.
26th February, 1917
Kut-el-Amara recaptured from Turks by new British Mesopotamian expedition under command of Gen. Sir Stanley Maude, Wilson requests authority from Congress to arm US merchant ships
28th February, 1917
United States government makes public a communication from Germans to Mexico proposing an alliance, and offering as a reward the return of Mexico's lost territory in Texas, New Mexico and Arizona; Submarine campaign of Germans results in the sinking of 134 vessels
1st March, 1917
Zimmermann Note released to press by State Department; Armed Ship Bill passes House
3rd March, 1917
British advance on Bapaume, Mexico denies having received an offer from Germany suggesting an alliance.
4th March, 1917
Senate adjourns without passing Armed Ship Bill; "Little group of willful men" successfully filibuster
10th March, 1917
Russian Czar suspends sittings of the Duma
11th March, 1917
Bagdad captured by British forces under Gen. Maude.
12th March, 1917
Wilson announces arming of merchant ships by executive order
14th March, 1917
China breaks with Germany
15th March, 1917
Culmination of "February Revolution"; Czar Nicholas II abdicates, Prince Lvoff heads new cabinet.
17th March, 1917
Bapaume falls to British. Roye and Lassigny occupied by French.
18th March, 1917
 Peronne, Chaulnes, Nesle and Noyon evacuated by Germans, who retire on an 85-mile front. City of Memphis, Illinois, and Vigilancia, American ships, torpedoed.
19th March, 1917
Alexander Ribot becomes French premier, succeeding Briand.
21st March, 1917
Healdton, American ship, bound from Philadelphia to Rotterdam, sunk without warning; 21 men lost.
26-31st March, 1917
British advance on Cambrai.
29th March, 1917
Wilson publicly calls for a national army to be "raised and maintained exclusively by selective draft"
1st April, 1917
Aztec, American armed ship, sunk in submarine zone, German submarine campaign exacts heaviest damage of war: 881,027 gross tons, 500,000 of which are British.
2nd April, 1917
Wilson delivers war address to Congress at 8:32 pm
5th April, 1917
Missourian, American steamer sunk in Mediterranean.
6th April, 1917
US declares war on Germany
7th April, 1917
 Cuba and Panama at war with Germany.
8th April, 1917
Austria-Hungary breaks with United States
9th April, 1917
Germans retreat before British on long front- Bolivia breaks with Germany
12th April, 1917
Canadian Army captures Vimy Ridge
13th April, 1917
Vimy, Givenchy, Bailleul and positions about Lens taken by Canadians.
16th April, 1917
2nd Battle of the Aisne begins, Lenin arrives in Russia
17th April, 1917
French tanks used for the first time in battle
20th April, 1917
Turkey breaks with United States.
22nd April, 1917
President Wilson suggests to the belligerents a peace without victory.
31st April, 1917
Germany announces intention of sinking all vessels in war zone around British Isles.
9th May, 1917
Liberia breaks with Germany
11th May, 1917
Russian Council of Workmen's and Soldiers' Delegates demands peace conference.
15th May, 1917
Petain becomes French Western Front C-in-C
16th May, 1917
Maria Bochkareva forms the Women's Battalion
17h May, 1917
Honduras breaks with German
18th May, 1917
Selective Service Act signed by Wilson.
19th May, 1917
John Pershing given command of AEF; Nicaragua breaks with Germany.
22-26th May, 1917
Italians advance on the Carso
5th June, 1917
Registration day for new draft army in United States
7th June, 1917
British attack at Messines, Messines-Wytschaete ridge in English hands, General Staff issues plan to ship American forces at a rate of 120,000 per month beginning in August; this rate of dispatch would not be realized until April 1918
8th June, 1917
Gen. Pershing, Commander-in-Chief of American expeditionary force, arrives in England en route to France.
15th June, 1917
Espionage Act
18th June, 1917
Haiti breaks with Germany
25th June, 1917
United States troops arrive in France
26th June, 1917
First US troops (1st Division) arrive in France
29th June, 1917
Greece declares war on the Central Powers
1st July, 1917
Russians begin offensive in Gallicia, Kerensky, Minister of War, leading in person.
6th July, 1917
Canadian House of Commons passes Compulsory Military Service Bill.
7th July, 1917
King George V changes name to Windsor
6th July, 1917
Canadian House of Commons passes Compulsory Military Service Bill.
12th July, 1917
King Constantine of Greece abdicates in favor of his second son, Alexander.
12-23rd July, 1917
Retreat of Russians on a front of 155 miles
20th July, 1917
Alexander Kerensky becomes Russian premier, succeeding Lvoff. - Drawing of draft number for American conscript army begins.
22nd July, 1917
Siam at war with Germany and Austria
31st  July, 1917
Franco-British attack penetrates German lines on a 20-mile front.
1st August, 1917
Pope Benedict XV makes plea for peace on a basis of no annexation, no indemnity.
7th August, 1917
Liberia at war with Germany.
8th August, 1917
Canadian Conscription Bill passes its third reading in Senate.
14th August, 1917
China at war with Germany and Austria-Hungary
15th August, 1917
Canadian troops capture Hill 70, dominating Lens
19th August, 1917
Italians cross the Isonzo and take Austrian positions.
28th August, 1917
Pope Benedict's peace plea rejected by President Wilson.
3rd September, 1917
Riga captured by Germans.
14th September, 1917
Paul Painleve becomes French premier, succeeding Ribot.
16th September, 1917
Russia proclaimed a republic by Kerensky.
20th September, 1917
Costa Rica breaks with Germany.
21st September, 1917
 General Tasker H. Bliss named Chief of Staff of the United States Army.
26th September, 1917
Zonnebeke, Polygon Wood and Tower Hamlets, east of Ypres, taken by British.
29th September, 1917
Turkish Mesopotamian army, under Ahmed Bey, captured by British.
3rd October, 1917
War Revenue Act; graduated income tax authorized
6th October, 1917
Peru and Uruguay break with Germany.
9th October, 1917
 Poelcapelle and other German positions captured in Franco- British attack.
12th October, 1917
British Offensive at Passchendaele
17th October, 1917
Antilles, American transport, westbound from France, sunk by submarine; 67 lost.
23rd October, 1917
American troops in France fire their first shot in trench warfare, French advance northeast of Soissons
24th October, 1917
Italian Caproretto Offensive
25th October, 1917
Italians retreat across the Isonzo and evacuate the Bainsizza Plateau.
26th October, 1917
Brazil at war with Germany.
31st October, 1917
Beersheba, in Palestine, occupied by British
1st November, 1917
Germans abandon position on Chemin des Dames
3rd November, 1917
Americans in trenches suffer 20 casualties in German attacks.
6th November, 1917
Passchendaele captured by Canadians, British Mesopotamian forces reach Tekrit, 100 miles northwest of Bagdad.
7th November, 1917
The Russian Bolsheviki, led by Lenin and Trotzsky, seize Potrograd and depose Kerensky.
8th November, 1917
Gen. Diaz succeeds Gen. Cadorna as Commander-in-Chief of Italian armies
10th November, 1917
Lenin becomes Premier of Russia, succeeding Kerensky.
15th November, 1917
Georges Clemenceau becomes Premier of France, succeeding Painlove.
18th November, 1917
Sir Frederick Maude dies in Mesopotamia
20th November, 1917
Massed tank attack at Cambrai
21st November, 1917
Bolshevik government disbands Women's Battalion, Ribecourt, Flesquieres, Havrincourt, Marcoing and other German positions captured by British.
23rd November, 1917
Italians repulse Germans on the whole front from the Asiago Plateau to the Brenta River.
24th November, 1917
Cambrai menaced by British, who approach within three miles, capturing Bourlon Wood.
1st December, 1917
German East Africa reported completely conquered, Allies' Supreme War Council, representing the United States, France, Great Britain and Italy, holds first meeting at Versailles.
3rd December, 1917
Russian Bolsheviki arrange armistice with Germans.
5th December, 1917
British retire from Bourlon Wood, Grain court and other positions west of Cambrai.
7th December, 1917
Finland declares independence, United States and Austria-Hungary at war
9th December, 1917
Jerusalem, held by the Turks for 673 years, surrenders to British, under Gen. Allenby.
10th December, 1917
Panama at war with Austria-Hungary.
11th December, 1917
United States at war with Austria-Hungary.
15th December, 1917
Armistice signed between Germany and Russia at Brest-Litovsk.
17th December, 1917
Coalition government of Sir Robert Borden is returned and considered confirmed in Canada.
22nd December, 1917
Central Powers and Soviets open peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk
8th January, 1918
Wilson announces 14 Points Peace Programme
3rd March, 1918
Soviet Russia and Central Powers make peace with Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
21st March, 1918
Start of German Spring Offensive
23rd March, 191i
German offensive redirects towards Amiens and Paris.
28th March, 1918
German Operation 'Mars' repulsed at Arras
29th March, 1918
Foch appointed Allied Coordinator in France
4-5th April, 1918
Australians halt German advance at Villers Bretonneux.
9th April, 1918
German launch 'Georgette' offensive against British at Lys.
23-24th April, 1918
British attempt to blockade Ostend harbor fails.
1st May, 1918
Sedition Act; amendment to Espionage Act of 1917
25th May, 1918
German U-boats make their first appearance in US waters
27th May, 1918
German offensive 'Blucher' launched - 3rd Battle of the Aisne begins
29th May, 1918
German troops advance to the Marne but are stopped by US Divisions.
15th-16th June, 1918
Austrian offensive at Asiago defeated by combined British and French force.
2nd July, 1918
Allied Supreme War Council supports intervention in Siberia
4th July, 1918
Battle of Le Hamel
6th July, 1918
Wilson agrees to American intervention in Siberia
15th July, 1918
Opening of last phase of Ludendorff launches final German offensive - 2nd Battle of the Marne
18th July, 1918
Allied counterattack seizes strategic  initiative from Germans; nine US divisions participate15th
20th July, 1918
German retreat at the Marne
8th August, 1918
Anglo-French counter-attack at Amiens supported by heavy artillery and 400 tanks achieves major successes. Ludendorff describes it as 'the Black Day' for the German Army
21st August, 1918
Allied breakthrough at Albert
4th September, 1918
American troops land at Archangel in North Russia
12th September, 1918
United States launches St. Mihiel offensive
23rd September, 1918
British 15th Cavalry Brigade attacks Haifa
26th September, 1918
Allied offensive at Meuse
28th September, 1918
Kiel mutiny by German sailors
3rd October, 1918
Germans and Austrians send notes to Wilson requesting an armistice; Max von Baden appointed Chancellor of Germany
5th October, 1918
Allied forces capture the Hindenburg Line
21st October, 1918
Germany ceases unrestricted U-boat warfare
26th October, 1918
Ludendorff is dismissed
28th October, 1918
Kiel mutiny by German sailors
1st November, 1918
Americans breakthrough German defenses at Meuse
3rd November, 1918
Mutiny of the German fleet at Kiel, Americans cut vital Lille-Metz rail link.
5th November, 1918
Congressional elections result in Republican control of Congress
9th November, 1918
Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates
11th November, 1918
On the eleventh hour, of the eleventh day, of the eleventh month, the Armistice is signed effectively halting the War.
18th November, 1918
Wilson announces that he will attend peace conference personally
28th November, 1918
The final Treaty of Versailles, is signed.
14th December, 1918
Lloyd George wins British General Election
12th January, 1919
Paris Peace Conference


The Congressional Evolution of the United States of America 

Continental Congress of the United Colonies Presidents 
Sept. 5, 1774 to July 1, 1776

September 5, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 22, 1774
October 26, 1774
May 20, 1775
May 24, 1775
May 25, 1775
July 1, 1776

Commander-in-Chief United Colonies & States of America

George Washington: June 15, 1775 - December 23, 1783

Continental Congress of the United States Presidents 
July 2, 1776 to February 28, 1781

July 2, 1776
October 29, 1777
November 1, 1777
December 9, 1778
December 10, 1778
September 28, 1779
September 29, 1779
February 28, 1781

Presidents of the United States in Congress Assembled
March 1, 1781 to March 3, 1789

March 1, 1781
July 6, 1781
July 10, 1781
Declined Office
July 10, 1781
November 4, 1781
November 5, 1781
November 3, 1782
November 4, 1782
November 2, 1783
November 3, 1783
June 3, 1784
November 30, 1784
November 22, 1785
November 23, 1785
June 5, 1786
June 6, 1786
February 1, 1787
February 2, 1787
January 21, 1788
January 22, 1788
January 21, 1789

Presidents of the United States of America

D-Democratic Party, F-Federalist Party, I-Independent, R-Republican Party, R* Republican Party of Jefferson & W-Whig Party 

 (1881 - 1881)
*Confederate States  of America

Chart Comparing Presidential Powers Click Here

United Colonies and States First Ladies

United Colonies Continental Congress
18th Century Term
09/05/74 – 10/22/74
Mary Williams Middleton (1741- 1761) Deceased
Henry Middleton
05/20/ 75 - 05/24/75
05/25/75 – 07/01/76
United States Continental Congress
07/02/76 – 10/29/77
Eleanor Ball Laurens (1731- 1770) Deceased
Henry Laurens
11/01/77 – 12/09/78
Sarah Livingston Jay (1756-1802)
12/ 10/78 – 09/28/78
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
09/29/79 – 02/28/81
United States in Congress Assembled
Martha Huntington (1738/39–1794)
03/01/81 – 07/06/81
07/10/81 – 11/04/81
Jane Contee Hanson (1726-1812)
11/05/81 - 11/03/82
11/03/82 - 11/02/83
Sarah Morris Mifflin (1747-1790)
11/03/83 - 11/02/84
11/20/84 - 11/19/85
11/23/85 – 06/06/86
Rebecca Call Gorham (1744-1812)
06/06/86 - 02/01/87
02/02/87 - 01/21/88
01/22/88 - 01/29/89

Constitution of 1787
First Ladies
April 30, 1789 – March 4, 1797
March 4, 1797 – March 4, 1801
Martha Wayles Jefferson Deceased
September 6, 1782  (Aged 33)
March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817
March 4, 1817 – March 4, 1825
March 4, 1825 – March 4, 1829
December 22, 1828 (aged 61)
February 5, 1819 (aged 35)
March 4, 1841 – April 4, 1841
April 4, 1841 – September 10, 1842
June 26, 1844 – March 4, 1845
March 4, 1845 – March 4, 1849
March 4, 1849 – July 9, 1850
July 9, 1850 – March 4, 1853
March 4, 1853 – March 4, 1857
March 4, 1861 – April 15, 1865
February 22, 1862 – May 10, 1865
April 15, 1865 – March 4, 1869
March 4, 1869 – March 4, 1877
March 4, 1877 – March 4, 1881
March 4, 1881 – September 19, 1881
January 12, 1880 (Aged 43)
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
March 4, 1889 – October 25, 1892
June 2, 1886 – March 4, 1889
March 4, 1897 – September 14, 1901
September 14, 1901 – March 4, 1909
March 4, 1909 – March 4, 1913
March 4, 1913 – August 6, 1914
December 18, 1915 – March 4, 1921
March 4, 1921 – August 2, 1923
August 2, 1923 – March 4, 1929
March 4, 1929 – March 4, 1933
March 4, 1933 – April 12, 1945
April 12, 1945 – January 20, 1953
January 20, 1953 – January 20, 1961
January 20, 1961 – November 22, 1963
November 22, 1963 – January 20, 1969
January 20, 1969 – August 9, 1974
August 9, 1974 – January 20, 1977
January 20, 1977 – January 20, 1981
January 20, 1981 – January 20, 1989
January 20, 1989 – January 20, 1993
January 20, 1993 – January 20, 2001
January 20, 2001 – January 20, 2009
January 20, 2009 to date

Capitals of the United Colonies and States of America

Sept. 5, 1774 to Oct. 24, 1774
May 10, 1775 to Dec. 12, 1776
Dec. 20, 1776 to Feb. 27, 1777
March 4, 1777 to Sept. 18, 1777
September 27, 1777
Sept. 30, 1777 to June 27, 1778
July 2, 1778 to June 21, 1783
June 30, 1783 to Nov. 4, 1783
Nov. 26, 1783 to Aug. 19, 1784
Nov. 1, 1784 to Dec. 24, 1784
New York City
Jan. 11, 1785 to Nov. 13, 1788
New York City
October 6, 1788 to March 3,1789
New York City
March 3,1789 to August 12, 1790
Dec. 6,1790 to May 14, 1800       
Washington DC
November 17,1800 to Present

Book a primary source exhibit and a professional speaker for your next event by contacting today. Our Clients include many Fortune 500 companies, associations, non-profits, colleges, universities, national conventions, PR and advertising agencies. As a leading national exhibitor of primary sources, many of our clients have benefited from our historic displays that are designed to entertain and educate your target audience. Contact us to learn how you can join our "roster" of satisfied clientele today!

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Primary Source Exhibits

727-771-1776 | Exhibit Inquiries

202-239-1774 | Office

202-239-0037 FAX 

Dr. Naomi and Stanley Yavneh Klos, Principals

Primary Source exhibits are available for display in your community. The costs range from $1,000 to $35,000 depending on length of time on loan and the rarity of artifacts chosen. 


U.S. Dollar Presidential Coin Mr. Klos vs Secretary Paulson - Click Here

The United Colonies of North America Continental Congress Presidents (1774-1776)
The United States of America Continental Congress Presidents (1776-1781)
The United States of America in Congress Assembled Presidents (1781-1789)
The United States of America Presidents and Commanders-in-Chiefs (1789-Present)

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